Adoption is an individual’s decision to become a regular user of a product.
Sequence of events beginning with consumer awareness of a new product leading to trial usage and culminating in full and regular use of the new product. Over time the adoption process resembles a bell curve formed by innovators, early adopters, the majority of consumers, late adopters, and laggards.
An innovation is any good, service, or idea that is perceived by someone as new. The idea may have a long history, but it is an innovation to the person who sees it as new. Innovations take time to spread through the social system. Rogers defines the innovation diffusion process as “the spread of a new idea from its source of invention or creation to its ultimate users or adopters.”
The consumer-adoption process focuses on the mental process through which an individual passes from first hearing about an innovation to final adoption. Adopters of new products have been observed to move through five stages:
1. Awareness -The consumer becomes aware of the innovation but lacks information about it.
2. Interest-The consumer is stimulated to seek information about the innovation.
3. Evaluation -The consumer considers whether to try the innovation.
4. Trial-The consumer tries the innovation to improve his or her estimate of its value.
5. Adoption -The consumer decides to make full and regular use of the innovation.
The new-product marketer should facilitate movement through these stages. A portable electricdishwasher manufacturer might discover that many consumers are stuck in the interest stage;they do not buy because of their uncertainty and the large investment cost. But these same consumers would be willing to use an electric dishwasher on a trial basis for a small monthly fee.The manufacturer should consider offering a trial-use plan with option to buy.
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ADOPTION PROCESS
As said earlier, there is always resistance to change. WE ALL WANT CHANGE BUT WE DON’T LIKE IT EVEN WHEN THE CHANGE IS FOR THE BETTERMENTPEOPLE DIFFER IN READINESS TO TRY NEW PRODUCTS
People differ in their approach towards change. Some differ in adopting new fashion, some in adopting new appliances, some doctors are hesitant to apply new medicines and still some farmers do not apply new implements. This is called adoption culture. After the early adoption, they increase the use and then others follow. Others are late adopters by nature. Let us categorize these customers into three units
? One who are early adopters. They are very quick in their response. These people are venture some and willing to try new ideas. In fact they are innovators in life and early adopters.
? Secondly Early Majority. They are very careful people and take time to adopt things. They tend to collect information about the change or the product, study carefully and then adopt on the basis of their merits.
? The third ones are late majority and traditionalists. They are the ones who adopt late and then use the product.
As marketing managers, we must study the demographics, the psychographics and media characteristics of the product and also keep the theme of advertising message on these lines. We must find the innovators of the product and also opinion leaders and keeping in view the financial stature of the consumers and their category. Then there are certain areas where product change is imminent and quicker while some areas change or innovation in the product is least desired or welcomed
PERSONAL INFLUENCE PLAY A KEY ROLE
In case of some of the products, depending to which category they belong to , personal influence and selling is very important. Demonstrations, experimentation, and even free use is given to influence the change in product or its innovation. Cosmetic items, food items and items in use of household are subject to personal selling.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INNOVATION AFFECTS THE RATE OF ADOPTION
Some products are quick in innovation, such as fashion items or the ones that bring a direct change in our status etc. Some product take long to adoption. Such as technical products or automobiles etc.
The following things are considered
1 Relative advantage
Other things, which influence adoption, are: social acceptability, scientific acceptability, cost and certainty